Free columbian exchange papers, essays, and research papers.

Advancements in agricultural production, evolution of warfare, increased mortality rates and education are a few examples of the effect of the Columbian Exchange on both Europeans and Native Americans.

Crosby's Article The Columbian Voyages, The Columbian Exchange, and Their Historians

But seldom is the concept of the exchange rate truly depicted for what it truly is: A relative price, which like any other economic entity is responsive to the laws of supply and demand....


The Columbian Exchange and the Pristine Myth

The sharing of these resources and combination of the Old and New World has come to be known as the Columbian Exchange.

Students of indigenous populations face significant obstacles. Of the most formidable is the biased textual record the invaders left. Almost everything we know about sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Indians emanates from European chroniclers. Comparing multiple first-hand accounts in a comparative – i.e., French, English, Spanish, and Dutch writings – context can overcome some of the bias naturally built into one-sided perspectives. Archaeological evidence can provide some correctives. Perhaps most promising of all is ethnographic analyses of Indian behavior. Studying Indians up close in discrete contexts, what social historians have called “thick description,” provides more certainty and sure-footedness in interpreting scant evidence and overcoming the attitudes and paying close attention to local circumstances and conditions from their unique historical perspective. In other words, thick description means not just describing behavior, but analyzing behavior in its context in ways that can be understood today. It requires an ethnographic approach, the system of meanings encoded in material and spiritual culture. Historians like Karen Ordahl Kupperman provide a good example of ethnogenetic analysis. In a chapter on “reading Indian bodies, Kupperman looked at hair styles, posture, dress, tattoos, and other signifiers of “self-presentation.” The author has also used this same approach to pursue the ethnogenesis of American Indians broadly in sixteenth century North America.


Period 1: 1491-1607 - Gilder Lehrman Period 1

Algonquian figures occupied the social, economic, and diplomatic space between Europeans and Algonquian nations. Often forced to serve two masters, despite being victims at times of colonial imperialism, ironically Algonquian liminals found agency despite their predicament and became vital instruments in the course of colonial American history. This perspectival turn in examining Algonquian history presents an opportunity to privilege agency as the genesis of what may be called here the Algonquian Exchange.

Essay by Crandall Shifflett - Virtual Jamestown

For interpretive and analytical purposes, the Algonquian Exchange might be seen as the contrapuntal force to the Columbian Exchange. In this usage of the term, we move beyond, although do not dispute, the abundant evidence of victims and their “contributions” to history, towards a deeper search for the evidence of the many ways that Indians, in this case Algonquians, became part of the DNA of America, influenced its development, and carried forward their genetic cultural markers in the core culture.

Pre-Columbian America | The West’s Darkest Hour

Columbus found some people that he named “Indians.” They colonies started to trade with each other, and by doing do, they started the Columbian Exchange.

Posts about Pre-Columbian America written by C .T.

Specifically, this paper: (1) defines recent trade problems and how they are affected by the exchange rate; (2) describes the steps taken within the agencies that determine the exchange rates; (3) examines the impact of these rates, both g...