From The Common Reader, First Series [1925]

Single issues of 24 magazines that were published "on or about December 1910," when, according to Virginia Woolf, "human character changed" and modernity became palpable.

ENG 5658: Virginia : Essays and Short Fiction

Founded in 1910 as the house magazine of the NAACP and edited by W. E. B. Du Bois, The Crisis quickly became the most important voice of the African-American struggle for cultural identity and civic justice in the U.S.


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Modernist formalism, however, was not without its political cost. Many of the chief Modernists either flirted with fascism or openly espoused it (Eliot, Yeats, Hamsun and Pound). This should not be surprising: modernism is markedly non-egalitarian; its disregard for the shared conventions of meaning make many of its supreme accomplishments (eg. Eliot's "The Wasteland," Pound's "Cantos," Joyce's , Woolf's ) largely inaccessible to the common reader. For Eliot, such obscurantism was necessary to halt the erosion of art in the age of commodity circulation and a literature adjusted to the lowest common denominator.


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The term modernism refers to the radical shift in aesthetic and cultural sensibilities evident in the art and literature of the post-World War One period. The ordered, stable and inherently meaningful world view of the nineteenth century could not, wrote T.S. Eliot, accord with "the immense panorama of futility and anarchy which is contemporary history." Modernism thus marks a distinctive break with Victorian bourgeois morality; rejecting nineteenth-century optimism, they presented a profoundly pessimistic picture of a culture in disarray. This despair often results in an apparent apathy and moral relativism.

Presentation on Virginia Woolf’s “A Room of One’s …

Founded by Ford Madox Hueffer in 1908 and edited by him for fifteen issues, this influential magazine published works by established authors and new ones like D. H. Lawrence, Wyndham Lewis, and Ezra Pound.

Free Woolf A Room of One's Own Essays and Papers

The Freewoman was established by Dora Marsden as "A Weekly Feminist Review" that would move beyond the vote to address such controversial issues as the economics and morality of sex.

Free Woolf A Room of One's Own papers, essays, and research papers.

In literature, the movement is associated with the works of (among others) Eliot, James Joyce, Virginia Woolf, W.B. Yeats, Ezra Pound, Gertrude Stein, H.D., Franz Kafka and Knut Hamsun. In their attempt to throw off the aesthetic burden of the , these writers introduced a variety of literary tactics and devices:

Virginia Woolf, “Mr. Bennett & Mrs. Brown” | circle, …

Its modest title notwithstanding, The Little Review probably did more to promote modernism than any other American journal, representing in its pages dozens of international art movements and the leading avant-garde figures of the day. It's also where most of Joyce's Ulysses first appeared in print.