As is well known, the conclave that elected Pope St. Pius was first going to choose Leo’s longtime Secretary of State, Mariano Cardinal Rampolla, but the selection was vetoed by Cardinal Puszyna, Archbishop of Cracow, acting on behalf of Emperor Franz Joseph. This was the last time the so-called Right of Exclusion was exercised by anyone asserting it. (The Emperors were not alone in their assertion. The Kings of France and Spain also claimed and exercised it at various times.)
Julian was the last direct descendentof the Constantinian line to ascend to the purple, and it is one of history'sgreat ironies that he was the last non-Christian emperor.
The Emperor of Ice Cream Essay Questions | GradeSaver
There was also historical reciprocity in the Archduke’s defense of the Pope. That is because during World War I, when the corner of Poland where Karol Wojtyla grew up was still part of the Empire, the Pope’s father, a professional military man, wore its uniform. I.e., he was under arms to defend the Archduke’s father, Ven. Karl I, Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary, the last emperor.