Often these creatures seemed to have been in need of a helping hand.

The clusters cl-and cr- would behave more like tr-, being voiced (to gl-, gr-), but we would see only the short form of the article before them: claur "splendor" > e-glaur "of the splendor", crist "cleaver" (sword) > e-grist "of the cleaver".

So we lived in the country where he had room for a garden and as many animals as possible.

We lack any explicit example of a word with the vowel y occurring both in the singular and the plural, but in WJ:418 we find Bar-i(n)-Mýl for "Home of the Gulls".


I seemed to have been born reading.

I can recall in some detail the day we acquired a collie puppy and a young kitten.

Kaluza, Zenon. “Late Medieval Philosophy, 1350-1500.” Routledge History of Philosophy, Vol. III: Late Medieval Philosophy. Ed. John Marenbon. New York: Routledge, 1998. 426-451.


My mother was born in California, the youngest of six children.

We do not see **e·Dhant with soft mutation.
The origin of these "contradictory" mutations evidently have to do with soft and nasal mutation operating on different stages in the evolution of Sindarin.

Like his, her stories were true accounts of past events.

We needn't enter into the phonological intricacies here, but rather simply set out their effects as far as they can be reconstructed - for to a large extent, we have to rely on reconstruction.

It wasn't exactly that I was a liar.

Gwirith, genediad remaining unchanged): MR:373 also lists Narn e·Dant Gondolin, "Tale of the Fall of Gondolin", where dant "fall" undergoes no mutation (we know that the unmutated form is also dant; compare Dantilais for *"Fall of the Leaves = Autumn" in PM:135; the stem is , "fall down", LR:354).

She collected my works, typed them, and bound them into a book.

The b, d, g are unchanged (benn "man", daw "gloom", gass "hole" > e-benn "of the man", e-daw "of the gloom", e-gass "of the hole", and likewise erin benn "on the man" etc.) It is hardly necessary to point out that there is room for some confusion here, since the phonemic distinction between voiced and unvoiced plosives is neutralized in this position.

I was a good student, although my abilities were decidedly lopsided.

—. “Social Outlook and Preaching in a Wycliffite Sermones Dominicales Collection.” Church and Chronicle in the Middle Ages: Essays Presented to John Taylor. Ed. Ian Wood and G.A. Loud. London: Hambledon, 1991. 179-91.

But then came the seventh grade in the big city of Ventura.

Forest-Hill, Lynn. “‘Mankind’ and the Fifteenth-Century Preaching Controversy.” Medieval and Renaissance Drama in England 15 (2003): 17-42.