Charles White, in a series of discourses delivered before the Literary and Philosophical Society of Manchester in England : Also, Strictures on Lord Kaims' [sic] discourse on the original diversity of mankind : Also, an appendix /
by: Smith, Samuel Stanhope, 1750-1819.
Ibid Most white philanthropists cared less than Niles about instructing bondsmen and ex-slaves. The few who did share his concern tended to agree that education of blacks did not render (and often was not intended to render) them equal to whites. See, for example, James Sullivan, "To Jeremy Belknap, Boston, July 30, 1795," in Jordan, White over Black, 355-56. On eighteenth-century ambivalence about racial hierarchy, see George W. Stocking Jr., Race, Culture, and Evolution: Essays in the Hirtory of Anthropology (New York, 1968), esp. 16-40. Samuel Stanhope Smith, a celebrated educator who received an honorary degree from Yale in 1783, may have inAuenced Niles's environmentalism. See Samuel Stanhope Smith, Essay on the Causes of the Variety of Com- plexion and Figure in the Human Species (Philadelphia, 1787).
Samuel stanhope smith, an essay on the causes ..
Finally, shared contractual language clearly likened Smith's passage on African marriage to representations of America's colonial connection with Britain and to the justifications used by American patriots in their opposition to imperial "slavery." Though parent-child allusions more commonly described the imperial bond, the ra- tionale behind familial and conjugal metaphors was comparable: Parental Britain- like Saungm Furro when he overstepped the bounds of legitimate authority over Broteer's mother -could no longer expect compliance from colonial children who had come of age. Shifting a familiar Anglo-American metaphor to a Dukandarran context, Smith's "black voice" could confound white manipulation, at the same time suggesting an area in which the two cultures may have been reconcilable. Smith could layer meaning on an idiom that whites clearly understood precisely because that language was adaptable enough to span real but not insurmountable cross-cultural gaps. We gain a deeper appreciation for the intertwining forces that constituted Smith's dynamic African American identity by understanding that "terms for order," even those that seem quite Lockean and American, as Smith's parental and paternal values do, may have derived as well from African models that were neither necessarily incompatible nor beyond the representative power of words29