Referencing yourself in an essay – …

As a rule, lecturers prefer that you go to outside academic sources rather than just referencing the course material. Doing so demonstrates that you can explore the topic yourself. Research the concept in your textbook or the library, and reference those outside sources instead.

Ten steps you can follow to ensure you are referencing your essay correctly

It is sometimes the case that you wish to refer to, or quote from, a source which you have not read yourself, but which has been cited in a work that you have consulted. This is called ‘secondary referencing’ as you have not read the original piece of work.

Wherever possible, you should always try and read the original because by quoting a secondary reference, you are relying on the author you are reading to give a fair reflection of the contents of the original work.

If you have to give a secondary reference in your work, you must make it clear that you have not read the original. Use a phrase such as 'cited in' or 'quoted in' and give the page number on which your source cited that information. For example:


Referencing: Citation and Language Matters Essay | …

If you are a Psychology student then you will need to follow the American Psychological Association (APA) referencing style.



When using an image from a book or journal article, to provide enhancement within an essay or a PowerPoint presentation, an in text reference should be included within the essay text or on the slide, and a full reference included at the end of the piece of work.

In-text