Several historians (e.g., Hooykaas 1972) have argued that Christianity was instrumental to thedevelopment of western science. Peter Harrison (2009) thinks thedoctrine of original sin played a crucial role in this, arguing therewas a widespread belief in the early modern period that Adam, prior tothe fall, had superior senses, intellect, and understanding. As aresult of the fall, human senses became duller, our ability to makecorrect inferences was diminished, and nature itself became lessintelligible. Postlapsarian humans (i.e., humans after the fall) areno longer able to exclusively rely on their a priorireasoning to understand nature. They must supplement their reasoningand senses with observation through specialized instruments, such asmicroscopes and telescopes. As Robert Hooke wrote in the introductionto his Micrographia:
He identified science’s areas of expertise as empiricalquestions about the constitution of the universe, and religion’sdomains of expertise as ethical values and spiritual meaning. NOMA isboth descriptive and normative: religious leaders should refrain frommaking factual claims about, for instance, evolutionary theory, justas scientists should not claim insight on moral matters. Gould heldthat there might be interactions at the borders of each magisterium,such as our responsibility toward other creatures. One obvious problemwith the independence model is that if religion were barred frommaking any statement of fact it would be difficult to justify theclaims of value and ethics, e.g., one could not argue that one shouldlove one’s neighbor because it pleases the creator (Worrall2004). Moreover, religions do seem to make empirical claims, forexample, that Jesus appeared after his death or that the early Hebrewspassed through the parted waters of the Red Sea.
So we began to build divisare not vertically, but horizontally.
Several typologies characterize the interaction between science andreligion. For example, Mikael Stenmark (2004) distinguishes betweenthree views: the independence view (no overlap between science andreligion), the contact view (some overlap between the fields), and aunion of the domains of science and religion; within those views herecognizes further subdivisions, e.g., the contact can be in the formof conflict or harmony. The most influential model of therelationships between science and religion remains Barbour’s(2000): conflict, independence, dialogue, and integration. Subsequentauthors, as well as Barbour himself, have refined and amended thistaxonomy. However, others (e.g., Cantor and Kenny 2001) have arguedthat it is not useful to understand past interactions between bothfields. For one thing, it focuses on the cognitive content ofreligions at the expense of other aspects, such as rituals and socialstructures. Moreover, there is no clear definition of what conflictmeans (evidential or logical). The model is not as philosophicallysophisticated as some of its successors, such as Stenmark’s(2004). Nevertheless, because of its enduring influence, it is stillworthwhile to discuss this taxonomy in detail.
Banned Books Week Reminds Us That Censorship Is …
It is unclear whether religious and scientific thinking arecognitively incompatible. Some studies suggest that religion drawsmore upon an intuitive style of thinking, distinct from the analyticreasoning style that characterizes science (Gervais and Norenzayan2012). On the other hand, the acceptance of theological and scientificviews both rely on a trust in testimony, and cognitive scientists havefound similarities between the way children and adults understandtestimony to invisible entities in religious and scientific domains(Harris et al. 2006). Moreover, theologians such as the Church Fathersand Scholastics were deeply analytic in their writings, indicatingthat the association between intuitive and religious thinking might bea recent western bias. More research is needed to examine whetherreligious and scientific thinking styles are inherently intension.
Introduction to Plato Selections, ed
Christianity is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion, currently thelargest religion in the world. It developed in the first century ADout of Judaism from a group of followers of Jesus. Christians adhereto asserted revelations described in a series of canonical texts,which include the Old Testament, which comprises texts inherited fromJudaism, and the New Testament, which contains the Gospels of Matthew,Mark, Luke, and John (narratives on the life and teachings of Jesus),as well as events and teachings of the early Christian churches (e.g.,Acts of the Apostles, letters by Paul), and Revelation, a propheticbook on the end times.
Raphael Demos (1927) INTRODUCTION Raphael Demos
every man, both from a deriv’d corruption, innate and born withhim, and from his breeding and converse with men, is very subject toslip into all sorts of errors … These being the dangers in theprocess of humane Reason, the remedies of them all can only proceedfrom the real, the mechanical, the experimental Philosophy[experiment-based science]. (1665, cited in Harrison 2009: 5)