Custom Racial and Gender Discriminations Essay

Across generations. Discrimination in one generation that negatively affects health, economic opportunity, or wealth accumulation for a particular group may diminish opportunities for later generations. For instance, parents’ poor health or employment status may limit their ability to monitor or support their child’s education, which in turn may lower the child’s

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One particularly interesting aspect of the dynamic processes that may generate cumulative discriminatory effects is the possibility of feedback effects (Blau et al., 1998). That is, cumulative discrimination may be more than an additive process in which the effects of discriminatory incidents sum over time to form larger and larger outcome disparities. The probability of future discriminatory events may be causally related to past discriminatory events, so that current discrimination may increase the probability of future discrimination. For example, in the education system, any bias in teachers’ expectations about the academic performance of black or Hispanic elementary school students may negatively influence the students’ performance (e.g., by generating self-fulfilling prophecies) (Jussim, 1989, 1991; Jussim and Eccles, 1992; Rosenthal, 2002). Over time, lower performance by such students may do the following: reinforce negative stereotypes; influence teachers’ expectations about the performance of students from these groups, resulting in even poorer performance by them (see Ferguson, 1998); and lead to their experiencing greater discrimination later in life. In an example from the labor market, discrimination in job hiring could make individuals in the target group reluctant to invest in future education or training, permanently lowering their skill levels. This outcome could in turn reinforce employer prejudices and lead to ongoing hiring discrimination in the future.


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Discrimination against parents at one point in time may limit prospects for their children even if the discriminatory behavior comes to an end or the children face no discrimination. Although evidence of the impact of parental income on child outcomes is mixed, recent work suggests that parental income may be particularly important for younger children in low-income families (see Duncan and Magnuson, 2002, for a summary). For example, if parents cannot afford to live in better school districts or provide extracurricular learning opportunities, their children are likely to do worse in school. Thus, factors, including discrimination faced by parents, that limit parental income may lead to lower achievement by their children.


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The method of determining how to put a student in a particular track is laden with racially discriminatory factors. To determine which track to place a child in, three factors are considered: standardized test scores, teacher recommendations, and parental intervention. First, the standardized tests have frequently been criticized for being racially biased. Second, teacher recommendations are strictly subjective and can be based solely upon general impressions. Third, if parents are unaware of the system due to language barriers or because of general ignorance, the parents are unlikely to intervene on behalf of their child and push for a higher track placement.

Immigration has affected racial discrimination in a number of ways

The Office of Civil Rights has further broadened its focus on monitoring school districts by examining the more complex and subtle issues that underlie unequal access to programs that students may encounter. For example, the Office of Civil Rights has moved from focusing solely upon school districts and colleges that are openly segregated toward ensuring that there are no racial barriers for students who apply or participate in various educational programs and services. In addition to what the Office of Civil Rights already investigates, the office has also expanded the method of investigating civil rights complaints by utilizing non-adversarial dispute resolution methods to assist all parties to reach workable solutions for all involved.