Identification of interest between the rulers and the ruled, being, therefore, in a literal sense, impossible to be realized, be spoken of as a condition which a government must absolutely fulfil; but as an end to be incessantly aimed at, and approximated to as nearly as circumstances render possible, and as is compatible with the regard due to other ends. For identity of interest, even if it were wholly attainable, not being the sole requisite of good government, expediency may require that we should sacrifice some portion of it, or (to speak more precisely) content ourselves with a somewhat less approximation to it than might possibly be attainable, for the sake of some other end.
A circumstance which has, perhaps, more than any other, contributed to conceal this oscillation from common view, is the difference between the nominal and real price of labour. It very rarely happens that the nominal price of labour universally falls; but we well know that it frequently remains the same, while the nominal price of provisions has been gradually rising. This, indeed, will generally be the case, if the increase of manufactures and commerce be sufficient to employ the new labourers that are thrown into the market, and to prevent the increased supply from lowering the money-price. But an increased number of labourers receiving the same money-wages will necessarily, by their competition, increase the money-price of corn. This is, in fact, a real fall in the price of labour; and, during this period, the condition of the lower classes of the community must be gradually growing worse. But the farmers and capitalists are growing rich from the real cheapness of labour. Their increasing capitals enable them to employ a greater number of men; and, as the population had probably suffered some check from the greater difficulty of supporting a family, the demand for labour, after a certain period, would be great in proportion to the supply, and its price would of course rise, if left to find its natural level; and thus the wages of labour, and consequently the condition of the lower classes of society, might have progressive and retrograde movements, though the price of labour might never nominally fall.
Includes "From Freedom to Bondage," by Herbert Spencer.
See for his characteristic ideas at the time: “The Game Laws,” V (Jan., 1826), 1-22: “Law of Libel and Liberty of the Press,” III (April, 1825), 285-381.
As it reveals itself in beings, Being withdraws.
And since the program of psychological therapy and vocational training is based on false assumptions, and in practice the approach has proven incapable of producing anything like the expected results, the idea of prison as "rehabilitation" has as a practical matter been abandoned, even if attempts may nevertheless be made to provide some psychological and vocational services.
There's a bit on the center of the fourfold .
Such prisons still exist, such as the infamous Pelican Bay State Prison of California; but the prisoners are isolated there only because they proved too violent to be housed with other prisoners.
Here's what means, in "Overcoming Metaphysics".
In the heyday of these ideas, in the '60's, offenders might be given "indeterminate" sentences; for, as with deterrence, prison is only a means to an end.