While a foundational figure in cultural anthropology, Tylor thought about culture in radically different terms than we do today. He accepted the premise that all societies develop in the same way and insisted on the universal progression of human civilization from savage to barbarian to civilized. Nowhere in his writing does the plural “cultures” appear. In his view, culture is synonymous with civilization, rather than something particular to unique societies, and, so, his definition refers to “Culture or civilization.” In part, his universalist view stemmed from his Quaker upbringing, which upheld the value of a universal humanity, and indeed Tylor’s refusal to accept the concept of race as scientifically significant in the study of culture was unusual in Victorian science.
Logan, Peter Melville. “On Culture: Matthew Arnold’s Culture and Anarchy, 1869.” BRANCH: Britain, Representation and Nineteenth-Century History. Ed. Dino Franco Felluga. Extension of Romanticism and Victorianism on the Net. Web. [Here, add your last date of access to BRANCH].
Turner, the First Impressionist (through ), with an
This edited collection, inspired by a conference in Bolivia (but covering the entire region), provides a rich overview of important trends in 19th-century historiography, from scholars working in Latin America, the United States, and Europe. While not all articles deal with popular movements, many touch on the importance of popular groups for understanding independence, regionalism, caudillismo, gender relations, labor and economic development, identity formation, nationalism, and national politics.
Jones, Edmund D. (1971). . London, New York : Oxford University Press
Matthew Arnold’s Culture and Anarchy spells out one of two major theories of culture to emerge around 1870. His theory defines culture in idealist terms, as something to strive for, and in this it helped to shape twentieth-century thinking about the value of the humanities in higher education. Arnold’s ideas were closely related to those of Edward B. Tylor, who proposed the descriptive theory of culture adopted by the emerging discipline of anthropology at about the same time.
Jones, Edmund D. Oxford University Press London, New York 1971
Edward B. Tylor’s Primitive Culture articulates one of two major theories of culture to emerge around 1870. His theory defines culture in descriptive terms as the “complex whole” that makes up social ideas and institutions, and in this it helped to establish anthropology as a recognized science. Tylor’s ideas were closely related to those published about the same time by Matthew Arnold, who defined culture as a humanist ideal that society should strive for.
Jones, Edmund D. 1971, Oxford University Press London, New York
David Hartley, the famous philosopher and early theorist of neurology, summed up the attitudes towards childhood’s difference from adulthood that characterized the age. In his Observations on Man, his Frame, his Duty, and his Expectations (1749), Hartley lumped together the insane, idiots, drunkards, criminals, and children as subjects all prone to “Erroneousness of Judgment,” and all deficient in “the Perfection of Reasoning natural to Adult.” The difference between children and the other groups on this list was, of course, that children could eventually be brought to the state of reasoning perfection. The cultivation of regular habits, epitomized by a more systematic approach to learning and by the various physical regimens advocated by medical experts, became not just personal concerns but social ones. The formation of new subjects for a changing society demanded a pedagogy of both the mind and the body for children.
Originally published, London: Worlds Classics, 1916.
Andrews argues for the essential role slaves and free people of color played in the independence wars, not just for wining independence but for initiating a great wave of movements for abolition and equality, which would roil the 19th century. He also explores how after the 1880s scientific racism’s dominance worked to roll back previous gains of citizenship and equality and restrict much popular action.