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Weber suggested two sets of ethical virtues that a proper politicaleducation should cultivate — the ethic of conviction(Gesinnungsethik) and the ethic of responsibility(Verantwortungsethik). According to the ethic ofresponsibility, on the one hand, an action is given meaning only as acause of an effect, that is, only in terms of its causal relationshipto the empirical world. The virtue lies in an objective understandingof the possible causal effect of an action and the calculatedreorientation of the elements of an action in such a way as to achievea desired consequence. An ethical question is thereby reduced to aquestion of technically correct procedure, and free action consists ofchoosing the correct means. By emphasizing the causality to which afree agent subscribes, in short, Weber prescribes an ethical integritybetween action and consequences, instead of a Kantian emphasis on thatbetween action and intention.

Library of Congress Catalog Data: ISSN 1095-5054

These latter findings indicate that academics are more religiouslydiverse than has been popularly assumed and that the majority are notopposed to religion. Even so, in the US the percentage of atheists andagnostics in academia is higher than in the general population, adiscrepancy that requires an explanation. One reason might be a biasagainst theists in academia. For example, when sociologists weresurveyed whether they would hire someone if they knew the candidatewas an evangelical Christian, 39.1% said they would be less likely tohire that candidate—there were similar resultswith other religious groups, such as Mormons or Muslims (Yancey 2012). Anotherreason might be that theists internalize prevalent negative societalstereotypes, which leads them to underperform in scientific tasks andlose interest in pursuing a scientific career. Kimberly Rios et al.(2015) found that non-religious participants believe that theists,especially Christians, are less competent in and less trustful ofscience. When this stereotype was made salient, Christian participantsperformed worse in logical reasoning tasks (which were misleadinglypresented as “scientific reasoning tests”) than when thestereotype was not mentioned.


Causal Premise: ’s belief that iscaused by the evolutionary process

Epistemic Premise: The evolutionary process  does nottrack the truth of propositions like

The relationship between religion and science is the subject ofcontinued debate in philosophy and theology. To what extent arereligion and science compatible? Are religious beliefs sometimesconducive to science, or do they inevitably pose obstacles toscientific inquiry? The interdisciplinary field of “science andreligion”, also called “theology and science”, aimsto answer these and other questions. It studies historical andcontemporary interactions between these fields, and providesphilosophical analyses of how they interrelate.


The University is Dead, Long Live the Academy

Until the nineteenth and even early twentieth century, it was commonfor scientists to have religious beliefs which guided their work. Inthe seventeenth century, the design argument reached its peakpopularity and natural philosophers were convinced that scienceprovided evidence for God’s providential creation. Naturalphilosopher Isaac Newton held strong, albeit unorthodox religiousbeliefs (Pfizenmaier 1997). By contrast, contemporary scientists havelower religiosity compared to the general population. There are vocalexceptions, such as the geneticist Francis Collins, erstwhile theleader of the Human Genome Project. His book The Language ofGod (2006) and the BioLogos Institute he founded advocatecompatibility between science and Christianity.

A+ Essay Examples, Research Papers and Topics

Christianity is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion, currently thelargest religion in the world. It developed in the first century ADout of Judaism from a group of followers of Jesus. Christians adhereto asserted revelations described in a series of canonical texts,which include the Old Testament, which comprises texts inherited fromJudaism, and the New Testament, which contains the Gospels of Matthew,Mark, Luke, and John (narratives on the life and teachings of Jesus),as well as events and teachings of the early Christian churches (e.g.,Acts of the Apostles, letters by Paul), and Revelation, a propheticbook on the end times.

Essay on Formal Organizations (Sociology)

Third, control. Pervasive in Weber’s view of rationalization isthe increasing control in social and material life. Scientific andtechnical rationalization has greatly improved both the human capacityfor a mastery over nature and institutionalized disciplinevia bureaucratic administration, legal formalism, andindustrial capitalism. The calculable, disciplined control over humanswas, again, an unintended consequence of the Puritan ethic of rigorousself-discipline and self-control, or what Weber called“innerworldly asceticism (innerweltlicheAskese).” Here again, Weber saw the irony that a modernindividual citizen equipped with inviolable rights was born as a partof the rational, disciplinary ethos that increasingly penetrated intoevery aspect of social life.