Check out the section on , the , and the .

PANEGYRIC: A speech or poem designed to praise another person or group. In ancient Greek and Roman rhetoric, it was one branch of public speaking, with established rules and conventions found in the works of Menander and Hermogenes. Famous examples include Pliny's eulogy on Emperor Trajan and Isocrates' oration on the Olympic games of 380.

the version of language spoken by particular people in a particular area, such as Scots.

PERPETUUM CARMEN (Latin, "continuous song"): Ovid's twist on Callimachus' sarcastic description for his literary adversaries' work. Originally, in Callimachus' use, Callimachus applies the term to lengthy narrative poetry done poorly, as opposed to Callimachus' own work, which focuses on brief, short narratives (see Feeney xxiv). Ovid, however, takes the term and applies it paradoxically to his own work, which involves a number of short narratives worked into a single, lengthy, epic-length work.

Raising Student Voice: Speaking Out for Equity and Justice

the humorous or sarcastic use of words or ideas, implying the opposite of what they mean.

There are a lot of tips and techniques to help you in capturing a reader’s interest. You can find some pretty good information in the following articles:


Even though is often a verb, it can also be a noun. The of the potato chips, for example, is a thing, a sound that we can hear. You therefore need to analyze the function that a word provides in a sentence before you determine what grammatical name to give that word.

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If you are unsure whether a sentence contains an action verb or not, look at every word in the sentence and ask yourself, "Is this something that a person or thing can do?" Take this sentence, for example:

My grumpy old English teacher at the plate of cold meatloaf.

Can you ? Is something you can do? Can you ? Is there someone outside the window right now? Can you ? Do your obnoxious neighbors keep you up until 2 a.m. because they are ? Can you ? What does a person do when she's ? Can you ? Show me what is. Can you ? Bingo! Sure you can! Run five miles and you'll be panting. Can you ? Of course not! But can you ? You bet—although we don't need a demonstration of this ability. In the sentence above, therefore, there are two action verbs: and .

The daredevil cockroach into Sara's soup.

, on the other hand, do not express action. Instead, they connect the of a verb to additional information about the subject. Look at the examples below:

Theo's overworked computer in a spray of sparks.

is something that we can do. We can cockroaches under our shoes. We can popcorn during a movie. We can numbers for a math class. In the first sentence, then, is what the potato chips do, so we can call it a verb.