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Those molecules initiate photosynthesis by trapping photons. Chlorophyll is called a and, as it sits in its “,” it only absorbs wavelengths of light that . The wavelengths that plant chlorophyll does absorb well are in the green range, which is why plants are green. Some photosynthetic bacteria absorb green light, so , and there are many similar variations among bacteria. Those initial higher electron orbits from photon capture are not stable and would soon collapse back to their lower levels and emit light again, defeating the process, but in the electron is stripped from the capturing molecule and put into another molecule with a more stable orbit. That pathway of carrying the electron that got “excited” by the captured photon is called an . Separating protons from electrons via chemical reactions, and then using their resultant electrical potential to drive mechanical processes, is how life works.

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On , replicators can make whatever anybody wants. That technology may also exist in the GCs’ treasure trove, but I am not specifically aware of it. Almost all that I know and feel comfortable reporting regarding those hoarded technologies are what fellow travelers have described, usually by directly telling me what they witnessed. The next chapter will present a vision in which manipulation on the nuclear level is not a regular practice, although I realize that it could well come to pass if it does not already exist, and that would make the next chapter’s vision potentially even more grand (or perilous). Also, although I have heard rumors of time travel as another sequestered technology, and some have made public claims of their involvement in time-travel experiments, I have not had any close fellow travelers confirm that to me from their direct personal experience, so I will also lay aside that possibility in the next chapter.

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In , we were still recovering from our Seattle effort when we were offered for making FE. Although Dennis began , when we received that , neither of us seriously suspected that it was an entreaty from those who run the world. A year later, just before we were wiped out, Dennis received an offer of about , delivered by a CIA man who said that he represented “European interests.” It became obvious that we had attracted the attention of the people who ran the world, although the , and we . Soon after Dennis rejected the offer, our nightmare truly began, as in one of the most spectacular wipeouts in the entire history of FE attempts. When the dust settled a couple of years later, , and I would never again see the world in the same way. Mr. Professor, who helped me free Dennis from jail, . The carnage spread far and wide, distantly peripheral players had their lives wrecked, and I heard sad stories from participants even as I wrote this essay.

Allows for more energetic respiration than anaerobic respiration.

As oxygenic photosynthesis spread through the oceans, everything that could be oxidized by oxygen was, during what is called the (“GOE”), although there may have been multiple dramatic events. The event began as long as three bya and is . The ancient carbon cycle included volcanoes spewing a number of gases into the atmosphere, including hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide, and hydrogen, but carbon dioxide was particularly important. When the continents began forming, carbon dioxide was removed from the atmosphere via water capturing it, , the carbon became combined into calcium carbonate, and plate tectonics subducted the calcium carbonate in the ocean sediments into the crust, which was again released as carbon dioxide in volcanoes.

Allows for direct energy capture of complex life, and led to plants.

About 2.7 bya, dissolved iron in anoxic oceans seems to have begun reacting with oxygen at the surface, generated by cyanobacteria. The dissolved iron was oxidized from a soluble form to an insoluble one, which then precipitated out of the oceans in those vivid red (the color of rust) layers that we see today and are called ("BIFs"), which became an oxygen sink and kept atmospheric oxygen low. The GOE is widely accepted to have created almost all of the BIFs, but it is not the only BIF-formation hypothesis and there is a great deal of controversy, but life processes are generally considered to be primarily responsible for forming the BIFs. Most iron in the crust is bound in silicates and carbonates, and it takes a great deal of energy to extract the iron from those minerals; the oxides that comprise BIFs are much less energy-intensive to refine, as the iron is so concentrated. Far less ore needs to be melted to get an equivalent amount of iron. BIFs are the source of virtually all iron ore that humans have mined. Life processes almost certainly performed the initial work of refining iron, and humans easily finished the job billions of years later. Copper was not refined by life processes, and copper ore takes twice as much energy to refine as iron ore does.