Extending the circle of compassion beyond the purely human.

See our collection of history essay examples. These example essays are to help you understanding . History is a fascinating puzzle with both personal and cultural significance. The past informs our lives, ideas, and expectations. Historians study the past to figure out what happened and how specific events and cultural developments affected individuals and societies. Also, see our list of to find the one that interests you.

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While the free essays can give you inspiration for writing, they cannot be used 'as According to Epicurus, the purpose of life is happiness ;and by happiness he .


Aristotle opposed his accidental chance to necessity:

Political philosophies, human rights, the military, epistemologies and ontologies of the body.

It is obvious that there are principles and causes which are generable and destructible apart from the actual processes of generation and destruction; for if this is not true, everything will be of necessity: that is, if there must necessarily be some cause, other than accidental, of that which is generated and destroyed. Will this be, or not? Yes, if this happens; otherwise not.
(Metaphysics, Book VI, 1027a29)


13. Pico della Mirandola, Giordano Bruno

Self-formation is a variation of Adler's Self-determination to include Kane's own "self-forming actions" (SFA) that are a subset of self-determining actions. Kane requires that an SFA is an indeterministic "will-setting action" that helps form our character. Later, other actions can be determined by our character, but we can still assert "ultimate responsibility" (UR) for those actions, because they can be traced back to the SFA.

14. Lorenzo Valla, Pietro Pomponazzi

Stoic philosophers, in contrast to Epicureans, believed that there are many things outside of our control in life, and therefore many things which could befall us and make our lives very difficult. Sickness, loss, poverty, death and other tragedies which commonly befall human beings are things which in general we have little control over. Should the goddess Fortuna (the Roman goddess of luck or fortune) decide that a terrible ill must come upon us, in many cases there is little we can do except wait and hope the terrible storm will soon pass, and not wipe us away for eternity.

In his essay “Death,” Nagel argues that death is bad for someone .

Man is miserable, thought Epicurus (the founder of Epicureanism) because he desires things that he need not desire. If we would but learn or habitualize ourselves to desire only those things which are necessary and natural to us as human beings, we would be able to bathe in the ‘pure joy of being’; that is, learn to understand how pleasurable it is just to exist. The Epicurean sage, or one who has attained the ideal which Epicureanism sets forth, is one who, given that his basic needs are met (shelter, food, etc.) is able to rival ‘the gods’ in happiness.

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Fischer says free will may or may not be incompatible with determinism, but his main interest, , is not incompatible. Fischer has recently edited a 4-volume, 46-contributor, 1300+ pages compendium of articles on moral responsibility - entitled Free Will, a reference work in the Critical Concepts in Philosophy series (Routledge 2005).