Recommended Reading:James Kirwan, (Manchester, 1999) and, ed.

- Pleasure Principle research papers examine the foundations of Freudian psychology, the idea that the human being will instinctively seek to avoid pain and seek out pleasure in the drive to satisfy psychological and biological urges.

Whether judgments about beauty are  has been a matter of serious philosophical dispute.

Bentham supposed that consistent application of this principle in social and political life would resolve many difficulties in human conduct,using proportional but perfectly certain to render unacceptably painful to the prospective criminal any behavior that would otherwise be likely to cause injury to others.


Recommended Reading:Friedrich Waismann, , ed.

by Hugh Bredin and Liberato Santoro-Brienza (Edinburgh, 2000).

- Clinical Psychology research papers examine the practical science that seeks to understand, prevent, and relieve psychological distress or dysfunction as well as promote mental well being in individuals.


For a discussion of his life and works, see .

- James-Lange Theory research papers examine the theory that holds emotion as a secondary response, indirectly caused by a physiological reaction.

al - Taxonomy of Cognitive Objectives

Most of theobjections to this theory are within three main categories. One is related to Leibniz's Law of Identity. This law basically says that if two objectsare identical, then they have all of the same properties. So if you could show something 'true' aboutbrain events that are not 'true' of mental events, then you could prove thistheory false. In 1962 Shaeffer pointedout that the brain is in space, hence the mind is not; so how can they beidentical? This has been overcome bypointing out that to say the mind is the brain is to speak very loosely. We are not saying there is an of the mind. But rather that e.g. Mental Event (1) equals (1). States do not have physical location. Processes and events do not have spaciallocation. The really dumb part of thisobjection, is that the mind and brain are two different . Borst points out that these objections"have been based on the failure to appreciate the possibility ofcontingent, as opposed to logical, identities" (1, 25).

} that emerges in opposition to material entropy.

There are points of view within analytic philosophy that have called themselves, or have been called by others, behaviorist. In logical behaviorism (as held, e.g., by Rudolf Carnap and Carl Hempel), psychological statements meant their verification conditions, which consisted of performed overt behavior. W. V. Quine made use of a variety of behaviorism, influenced by some of Skinner's ideas, in his own work on language. Gilbert Ryle defended a distinct strain of philosophical behaviorism, sketched in his book The Concept of Mind. Ryle's central claim was that instances of dualism frequently represented 'category mistakes,' and hence that they were really misunderstandings of the use of ordinary language.

Bergson won for literature in 1927.

- Jung's Archtypes essays look at Carl Jung's theory of how the human mind could be understood by looking at archetypes modeled after mythical characters.